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Agriculture research

Sapropel (a contraction of ancient Greek words sapros and pelos, meaning putrefaction and mud, respectively) is a term used in marine geology to describe dark-coloured sediments that are rich in organic matter. Organic carbon concentrations in sapropels commonly exceed 2% in weight.

Formation

Sapropels are thought to develop during episodes of reduced oxygen availability in bottom waters, such as an oceanic anoxic event (OAE). Most studies of sapropel formation mechanisms infer some degree of reduced deep-water circulation. Oxygen can only reach the deep-sea by new deep-water formation and consequent "ventilation" of deep basins. There are two main causes of OAE: A reduction in deep-water circulation or a raised upper level oxygen demand.

A reduction in deep-water circulation will eventually lead to a serious decrease in deep-water oxygen concentrations due to biochemical oxygen demand associated with the decay of organic matter that sinks into the deep-sea as a result of export production from surface waters. Oxygen depletion in bottom waters then favours the enhanced preservation of the sinking organic matter during burial in the sediments. Organic-rich sediments may also form in well-ventilated settings that have highly productive surface waters; here the high surface demand simply extracts the oxygen before it can enter the deep circulation currents so depriving the bottom waters of oxygen.

Significance

Sapropelic deposits from global ocean anoxic events form important oil source rocks. Detailed process studies of sapropel formation have concentrated on the fairly recent eastern Mediterranean sapropels,[1] the last of which was deposited between 9.5 and 5.5 thousand years ago.

The Mediterranean sapropels of the Pleistocene reflect increased density stratification in the isolated Mediterranean basin. They record a higher organic carbon concentration than non-sapropel times; an increase in the ?15N and corresponding decrease in ?13C tells of rising productivity as a result of nitrogen fixation.[2] This effect is more pronounced further east in the basin, suggesting that increased precipitation was most pronounced at that end of the sea.[2]

Uses

According to Romanian tycoon Dinu Patriciu, the sapropel has a huge potential of being developed into a wide array of products, including a new form of alternative energy.[3] Currently Dinu Patriciu has a marine exploration project in the Black Sea, that examines the sapropel sediments in that region, with sediment cores collected and investigated by several universities and research institutes across the world.[3]




Sapropel as raw material for extraction of organic substances

Research works, we have found, show that the composition of organic substances used in cultivating plants, their benefit in application the result of impact on living organisms, depend very much on the source of their origin.

Living organisms maintain their biochemical composition and form only until they are alive. As soon as the life ends, they immediately start to decompose. The cause of this, as it had been established by the great French scientist Louis Pasteur, - a destructive activity of microorganisms, for which the organic substance becomes a natural habitat. Processes of decomposition of organic substance serve for bacteria as the source of energy providing their vital activity, and of carbon needed to construct their body. If there are no natural factors preventing a decay, the organic substance is completely eliminated very rapidly.

The main condition of preserving organic residues is the absence or deficiency of oxygen. The point is that microorganisms using organic substances are primarily aerobes that is they are able to exist only in the environment with oxygen. Therefore, the place where this condition is observed, they are effective and ruthless. In the media, where the oxygen is absent or in minor quantities, the vital activity of aerobic bacteria is not possible. In these cases, the organic substance is preserved for a long time.

In natural environment, “oxygen-free” conditions occur in case of burial of organic substances in the depth of impenetrable deposits (for example, in clays, coals) or in deposits consisting of the concentrated mass of organic substance (for example, in peat, petroleum or sapropel).

We should point out, namely a deficiency of oxygen in the concentrated accumulations of large masses of organic substance determines its possibility to be converted into mineral resources: solid – coal and oil combustible shale, liquid – oil and sapropel, or gaseous – fuel gas. Such transformations, geologists call as metamorphism. They pass for many thousands of years, and sometimes, for decades and hundreds of million years under the conditions of high pressures and temperatures in the depths of Earth’s crust or under the depth of water, where the organic substance falls together with other rocks.

Organic substance of sapropel is formed in combination of favorable conditions: humid warm climate, very much humidified soils, hydrophilous and thick vegetation. Sapropel consists of organic substance and mineral admixtures forming as the result of biochemical, microbiological and physico-chemical processes, from the residues of plant and animal organisms, inhabiting a lake, as well as particles of different nature brought into the reservoirs with water and wind. Approximately, such climate needed to form the organic-mineral sapropel was on the territory of Tverskaya region of Russia tens of thousands years ago.

Relic sapropel “Chudoplodorodie”™ – is a unique natural formation, combining in itself accumulated for millennia organic and mineral complex. Organic compounds are rich both with general humic substances, including humic acid, and the highest form of organic compound – fulvoacid that is the last stage of decomposition of organic compounds, being the most active and useful component of organic compounds. Mineral complex Chudoplodorodie™ consists of the complete set of macro- and micro-elements necessary for plants (N, P, K, Mg, S, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, B, Zn, Mo, etc.), molecules of which are bound in natural way with humic acid and fulvoacid and freely penetrate the cells of plants in the amount that is required for plants.

Sapropel is significantly richer by its chemical, biological, physical structure and properties than such mineral resources as shale, coal, oil or bauxites, phosphates, etc. We produce it according to the unique Japan technology from the lake Zharky, Zharkovsky district of Tverskaya region.

Applying innovational technologies of processing of our sapropel, we were able to obtain organic fertilizers and extracts of the highest quality: Chudoplodorodie™ sapropel, Chudoplodorodie™ Ultrahumate, Chudoplodorodie™ fulvoacid.



Chudoplodorodie™ sapropel

Chudoplodorodie™ sapropel – is a natural organic fertilizer created from a relict lake sapropel from the lake Zharky, Tverskaya region, located in the ecologically clear swampy forest area. We produce sapropel according to the unique Japan technology, completely excluding extraneous contaminants and presence of seeds of weeds, carrying out the innovational membrane filtration and, as the result, the most useful extraction of sapropel we suggest to you.

Organic compounds Chudoplodorodie™ sapropel are rich both with general humic substances, including humic acid, and the highest form of organic compound – fulvoacid that is the last stage of decomposition of organic compounds, being the most active and useful component of organic compounds.

Mineral complex - sapropel Chudoplodorodie™ consists of the complete set of macro- and microelements necessary for plants (N, P, K, Mg, S, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, B, Zn, Mo, etc.), molecules of which are bound, in natural way, with fulvoacid and freely penetrate the cells of plants in the amount that is required for plants, in particular for carrying out a photosynthesis.

A photosynthesis plays a key role in the life of plants. Disturbance of photosynthesis of plants often occurs as the result of the excess of mineral fertilizers, deterioration of the quality of fertile layer, disturbance of water exchange (drought or soil overflow) and other external factors.

Forming a part of Chudoplodorodie™ sapropel, macro- and microelements, organic compounds of humic substances, and molecules of fulvoacid force out harmful substances from the extracellular fluid, performing the role of the catalyst of processes. The application of Chudoplodorodie™ sapropel clears a conductive system of plants, restoring the process of photosynthesis.

Scientific studies and practice show that mineral substances have a substantial impact on photosynthesis. Deficiency of any of the following elements – N, P, K, Mg, S, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, B, Zn, Mo, - has a negative effect upon the rate of photosynthesis. The impact of nutrients on the photosynthetic apparatus may be versatile. They have the influence on the formation of morphological and anatomical structure of plants, on physical processes, taking part in creation of chloroplasts, in which connection they form a part of both separate structural formations and enzymes.

In the Figure given below, the result of Chudoplodorodie™ sapropel application is presented in the form of a plot reflecting the dependence of the rate of photosynthesis versus illumination intensity of plants. Both plants are grown on the same substrate with the equal set of mineral elements, one of them (A) is regularly fertilized with Chudoplodorodie™ sapropel, the other (B) is irrigated with water.

A substantial acceleration of photosynthesis of the plant fertilized with Chudoplodorodie™ sapropel is clearly evident from the plot.

In addition to the effect on the plant itself, the application of Chudoplodorodie™ sapropel has a complex impact upon the soil; improves hydrophysical, agrochemical and physico-chemical properties of soil; neutralizes excessive acidity, raises the absorbing capacity, increases a humus content – raises soil fertility and gradual assimilation nutritional elements excludes the overfeeding of plants and decreases nitrates accumulation.

Apart from direct effects on soil, scientists-microbilogists, at the 7-th International Conference “Green Chemistry” in 2017, have proved that the application of humic substances increases the concentration of useful bacteria and microorganisms that, at the same time, increases the resistance to drastic unfavorable changes (cold, heat, drought and other similar changes).

Chudoplodorodie™ Ultrahumate

Humates are the salts of humic and fulvoacids. Humates are the extracts of such organic substances as leonhardite (oxidized brown coal), peat, sapropel, shales and liquid lignite. Of particular value are humates, possessing a high biological activity, obtained, in particular, from peat and sapropel. Humates have, in their composition, fulvo- and humic acids, salicylic acids, macro- and microelements, the highest content of oxygen they have in phenolic groups.

Biological activity of humates, received from sapropel, exceeds by 2-3 times the analogous indicator for similar products obtained from other kinds of raw material. It is explained by the fact, that the content of functional groups of humic and concomitant fulvic acids of sapropels, so important for soil fertility, significantly exceeds the indicators given for humic acids from other sources, and, in addition, in sapropel there is much more of peptide nitrogen so useful for plants.

We produce Chudoplodorodie™ Ultrahumate by means of innovational technology of ultrasonic sapropel cavitation. With the help of this technology of several reactors with the intensity of ultrasound in the working chambers 50 W/cm2, a unique substance was received – an ultra-dispersed sapropel emulsion – Ultrahumate. Organic substance dissolved in ultrahumate is 87%, the mathematical expectation of dispersion distribution is 1 µm.

A humic substance obtained in the installation can be applied as the growth biostimulant for a presowing treatment of seeds as well as for watering and drip irrigation of plants. A humic substance has a high biological activity, causes soil particles to enlarge, significantly increasing its fertility.

Chudoplodorodie™ Ultrahumate differs from other humates by a record-breaking content of chemical inclusions in its composition. Mineral complex Chudoplodorodie™ Ultrahumate consists of the complete set of macro- and microelements, necessary for plants (N, P, K, Mg, S, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, B, Zn, Mo, etc.), molecules of which are bound, in natural way, with fulvoacid and freely penetrate the cells of plants in the amount that is required for plants, in particular for carrying out a photosynthesis.

Apart from increasing a soil fertility, saturation of plants with useful substances and elements, Chudoplodorodie™ Ultrahumate increases the immunity of plants to the unfavorable conditions (cold, heat, drought and other similar changes).

Chudoplodorodie™ Fulvoacid

A unique development of our company – extract of fulvoacid (also called fulvic acid, in English –fulvic acid) from sapropel. Fulvic acid is the product, attendant of humic acid extraction, obtained according to the innovational technology, practically having no analogues in the world. It is a minute molecular fraction, having the highest degree of biological activity.

Its basic characteristics:

Formula FA – C14 H12 O8

Molecular weight – 308.2403

Molecular size - ~ 100 up to 1000 Dalton

Monoisotopic mass – 308.053223 Da

Fulvoacid (FA) – it is a link between alive and lifeless.

Fulvoacid – is a natural compound with unusual properties. It is the organic electrolyte, which easily adds mineral substances making them assimilable for living organisms. Scientists say that fulvic acid is “the elixir of life” that without it no living thing will be able to exist. It dissolves minerals (with formation of fulvates) and plants, together with water, absorb them by their root system. Fulvates (organic minerals in the electrolytic solution) transport minerals and rare-earth elements to every cell of the organism and easily pass through the membrane into the cell. In consumption of plants and their fruits, fulvates enter inside the organism.

Thus, fulvic acid contributes to the absorption of mineral substances, in addition, it intensifies metabolic processes, restores electric potential of cells, increases a permeability of cellular membranes, possesses antioxidant properties, participates in neutralization and excretion of toxins from the organism. Fulvic acid is used in the form of biologically active additions as well as drug formulations. Researches have shown that substances containing in fulvic acid have the strength of antibiotics, but in contrast to pharmaceutical preparations, do not suppress a useful microflora and do not cause the resistance (stability) of pathogenic microorganisms.

Fulvoacids are the most aggressive fraction of humic substances. It has a specific elementary composition and contains 74 organic minerals, 10 vitamins and 18 amino acids. Minerals, containing in fulvoacid, are ionic, i.e. sufficiently small and therefore, they are easily absorbed with plants. Fulvoacid is also a powerful chelate and able to absorb poisonous and heavy metals.

Ideally, it is the application of Chudoplodorodie™ Fulvoacid as a biostimulant for a growth on hydroponics. Probably, it is the only organic fertilizer, which can be applied in hydroponics, as far as it is completely soluble in the water and does not contaminate irrigating atomizers. In so doing, fulvoacid gives the increment of crop yield in the size of 15%, and what is more important – it is sharply increases the resistance of plants to various unfavorable factors (diseases, stresses). In addition, the application of Chudoplodorodie™ Fulvoacid decreases the needs in the use of mineral fertilizers that decreases the content of nitrates in the plants.

One the most interesting properties of Chudoplodorodie™ Fulvoacid is in its application in hydroponics – fulvoacid restores a natural taste to plants and the plants cease to be “artificial”, gain smell and natural properties.